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Kate Derickson. Urban Geography. 2019. "The annihilation of time by space."

Aradhya Sood, William Speagle & Kevin Ehrman-Solberg. SSRN. 2019. "Long Shadow of Racial Discrimination: Evidence from Housing Covenants of Minneapolis."

Kirsten Delegard & Michael J Lansing. Middle West Review. 2018. "Prince and the Making of the Minneapolis Mystique."

Kirsten Delegard & Kevin Ehrman-Solberg. Open Rivers. 2017. "'Playground of the People'? Mapping Racial Covenants in Twentieth-Century Minneapolis."

Further Reading

Multi-Media Resources

TPT Origins: MN Experience. "Jim Crow of the North." A 1-hour documentary chronicling the history of racial covenants and racist housing practices in the Twin Cities.

Adam Ruins Everything. "The Disturbing History of the Suburbs." Six-minute history of redlining and residential segregation.

Glantz, Aaron, and Emmanuel Martinez. “For People of Color, Banks Are Shutting the Door to Homeownership.” Reveal news, February 15, 2018. "Kept out" series.

Race: The Power of an Illusion. California Newsreel, 2003. The whole documentary provides a wonderful framework for understanding racial covenants in Minneapolis. This excerpt is particularly relevant.

A Forgotten History Of How Our Government Segregated America from Fresh Air.” Fresh Air. WHYY, May 3, 2017.

A Raisin in the Sun, 1961. Film based on Lorraine Hansberry play that was first released in 1961.

Miss Buchanan's Period Of Adjustment.” Revisionist History Podcast. A reframed understanding of the Brown v Board of Education decision and it's impact on communities of color.

Books and Articles

Boyle, Kevin. Arc of Justice: A Saga of Race, Civil Rights, and Murder in the Jazz Age. New York: H. Holt, 2004.

Coates, Ta-Nehisi. “ The Case for Reparations.” The Atlantic, June 2014.

Freund, David M. Colored Property: State Policy and White Racial Politics in Suburban America . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Gonda, Jeffrey D. Unjust Deeds: The Restrictive Covenant Cases and the Making of the Civil Rights Movement, 2015.

Gordon, Colin. Mapping Decline: St. Louis and the Fate of the American City. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

Gotham, Kevin Fox. Race, Real Estate, and Uneven Development: The Kansas City Experience, 1900-2010, 2014.

Gotham, Kevin Fox. “Urban Space, Restrictive Covenants and the Origins of Racial Residential Segregation in a US City, 1900-1950.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 24.3 (September 2000).

Hannah-Jones, Nikole. “Living Apart: How the Government Betrayed a Landmark Civil Rights Law.” ProPublica, June 25, 2015.

Hansberry, Lorraine. Raisin in the Sun. Play first produced in 1959.

Hughes, Langston. "Hemmed In," in One-Way Ticket. New York: Knopf, 1949.

Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Juergens, Ann. “Lena Olive Smith : A Minnesota Civil Rights Pioneer.” William Mitchell Law Review 28, no. 1 (2001).

Long, Herman H, and Charles Spurgeon Johnson. People vs. Property; Race Restrictive Covenants in Housing. Nashville: Fisk Univ. Press, 1947.

Massey, Douglas S, and Nancy A Denton. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Moore, Natalie Y. The South Side: A Portrait of Chicago and American Segregation. New York: Picador, 2016.

Norris, Michele. The Grace of Silence. New York: Pantheon Books, 2010.

Rothstein, Richard. The Color of Law : A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 2017. And for an interview with the author, listen to this podcast: “A Forgotten History Of How Our Government Segregated America from Fresh Air.” Fresh Air. WHYY, May 3, 2017.

Satter, Beryl. Family Properties: How the Struggle over Race and Real Estate Transformed Chicago and Urban America. New York, N.Y.: Henry Holt & Co., 2010.

Shin, Sun Young. A Good Time for the Truth : Race in Minnesota. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2016.

Sugrue, Thomas J. Sweet Land of Liberty: The Forgotten Struggle for Civil Rights in the North. New York: Random House, 2008.

Sugrue, Thomas J. The Origins of the Urban Crisis Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Vose, Clement E. Caucasians Only: The Supreme Court, the NAACP, and the Restrictive Covenant Cases. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959.

Resources For Educators

Struggles for Justice: Segregation & Housing in the United States. UC Berkeley Historical Social Science Project. A lesson plan charting the history of housing injustice in the United States.

REPARATIONS SYLLABUS. University of Minnesota Libraries. An offshoot of the “Reparations, Repatriation, and Redress” symposium at the University of Minnesota, this curriculum presents an archive of scholarly and popular sources on themes related to reparations.

Racial Housing Covenants in the Twin Cities. MNopdedia. An overview of the history of racial covenants in the Twin Cities.